1) What is CCTV? Why is there a need for CCTV?
CCTV is the abbreviation for Closed Circuit Television. It is a visual surveillance technology
system designed to monitor the desired surrounding environment and its activities. In recent
years, the role of CCTV has grown to unprecedented levels. Originally used to deter crime and
'anti-social behavior' such as minor offenses like littering, urinating in public and etc, CCTV now
plays a more important role, assisting the police and security organizations in their investigations.
In India, an extensive round-the-clock CCTV surveillance system covers majority of the
highways and roads, providing 24 hours visual surveillance on traffic situations. With
the system, authorities are able to response faster to traffic situations. In recent years, there is a
vast increase in demand for CCTV applications. Thousands of cameras are installed.
They can be found in various places such as shopping malls, boutiques, bus terminals, Metro
stations, underpasses, Automatic Teller Machines ATM, sensitive government buildings, private
estates and even extending its application to red-light districts, in an attempt to monitor and deter
CCTV is fast becoming an integral plan for crime control policies and social behavior control
theory in an effort to maintain ethnical public behavior and public order. It has become an icon
for security and its presence is guaranteed to generate a sense of security and welcomed by
2) Can CCTV prevent crime?
CCTV acts as deterrence rather than prevention to crime. CCTV deters 'opportunistic' crime,
where people take advantage of a situation on the spur of the moment.
The cameras are also creating a vastly increased rate of conviction after crimes are detected.
Virtually everyone caught committing an offense on camera pleads guilty nowadays. Once people
know they have been videotaped, they admit the offense immediately.
3)What is NTSC and PAL system?
NTSC stands for National Television Standards Committee. It is the colour video signal television
standard: 525 lines, 60Hz
PAL stands for Phase Alternate Line. It is the colour video signal television standard: 625 lines,
50Hz, In India we use PAL system.
4) How to choose a suitable CCTV camera for your needs.
Choosing the correct CCTV Camera that fits your digital surveillance requirements is very
important. Below is a simplified set of guidelines when choosing the correct CCTV camera for
a) Location: Indoor or outdoor application
b) Requirement for day and night surveillance
c) The angle of view required. Wide angle coverage or a narrow field view/Focused view is
5) How does focal length affect angle of view?
Focal length is measured in mm. A short focal length (e.g. 3.6mm) represents a wide angle of
view while a long focal length (16mm) represents a narrow angle of view.
6) What is Day and Night Camera?
Day and night cameras are cameras that are able to provide video surveillance even at low levels
of illumination. A day and night camera displays a full colour image during the daytime but
produces monochrome (Black and white) video images at times when the lighting is poor. The
camera has a device that is sensitive to the surrounding light conditions and switches the camera
between colour and black & white modes automatically. It is designed to increase its light
sensitivity in poor lighting conditions and at the same time reduce noise level in the images.
However, the day and night camera will fail if the illumination (Lux) level is too low.
7) What is IR camera?
IR is the abbreviation for Infrared. IR cameras have image sensors that are designed to sense
and process infrared light emitted from IR LEDs. Similar to Day & Night cameras, IR cameras
turned to monochrome mode when illumination falls below a certain Lux. An IR camera differs
from a Day & Night camera in which an IR camera is able to capture video images in absolute
darkness with the help of infrared light source.
8) What is C and CS mounts?
It refers to the 2 different standards of CCTV camera lens mount. The difference between the two
is the distance between the lens and the image sensor. C mount: 17.5mm, CS mount: 12.5mm.
Cameras and lenses nowadays are generally CS mount rather than C mount. With CS mount
cameras, both types of lenses can be used. However, the C mount lens requires an additional
5mm ring to be fitted between the camera and lens to achieve a focused image. With C mount
cameras it is not possible to use CS mount lenses as it is not physically possible to mount the
lens close enough to the image sense to achieve a focused image.
9) What camera housing to use in outdoors and at what IP rating?
Camera housings are of various shape and sizes. Different housing comes with different UP
rating, from dust proof to all weather rating. This system is governed by a number of European
and British standards IP55
10) What is CCTV DVR?
- Protected against dust – limited ingress
- Protection against low pressure jets of water from all directions – limited ingress permitted IP65
- Protected against dust – limited ingress
- Protection against low pressure jets of water from all directions – limited ingress permitted
- Protection against high pressure water from all directions – limited ingress permitted.
DVR is abbreviation for Digital Video Recorder, it main function is to compress images recorded
from the cameras into a particular image compression format and store them.
11) What features should I look for in a CCTV DVR?
All DVRs are different. There are various factors to consider when purchasing a DVR besides
price comparison. The basic and most important factors to consider are
- Number of cameras supported, i.e. number of video inputs
- Recording at how many frames per second (fps)
- Compression technology used
- Hard disk space, number of hard disk it can support
- Network connection / remote viewing capability
- Motion detection or scheduling recording functions
- Video backup means, by USB, CD, DVD or other means.
- Easy and comprehensive search capabilities
12) What is the term frames per second (fps)?
Frames per second (fps) relates to how many pictures the DVR can record in a second. Real time
recording is about 25fps. To calculate the fps per camera, take the total fps that the system could
offer and divide it by the number of video inputs. For example, a 100 fps DVR with 4 video inputs
would give u 100/4, 25fps per camera.
13) What is image compression and what are the types of compression formats used?
CCTV DVR converts analog images to digital and save them in hard disk. Image compression
plays an important role of improving transmission as well as reducing storage size. There are
various formats of image compression in the market. Among which, JPEG and MPEG format of
compression are the most widely used formats in the market currently. The major difference
between JPEG and MPEG is in compression techniques. JPEG processes images by
compressing one by one still pictures but MJPEG compresses images sequence by sequence.
JPEG compression method can be divided into JPEG, M-JPEG, wavelet and etc.
MPEG compression method can be divided into H.263, MPEG, MPEG-II and MPEG-IV. 17. Do I need 30 frames per second (fps) recording on all security cameras?
CCTV surveillance systems are generally intended to capture images and not to make movie
quality videos. Recording rates of as low as 1 or 2 frames will be sufficient to capture critical
moments for example, a criminal act in progress. Even at low frame rates, recording on motion,
the compressed video files produced per day are huge in size. Therefore, it is not advisable to set
all cameras to be recording at a high frames per second rate.
14) How many days/weeks of recording can I store?
This depends on the size of your hard drive, the number of cameras, which recording mode (on
motion, on alarm, continuously, etc.), what type of video compression you are using, quality of
resolution used. Please contact our technical support directly for assistance on the calculation.
Biometric Attendance Machine
1) What is Biometrics?
Biometrics Refers to the identification of humans by their characteristics or traits such as fingerprints. Biometrics is used in computer science as a form of identification and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.
2) What are the benefits of using fingerprints in biometric technology?
Fingerprints are impressions made of the minute ridge formations and patterns found on the fingertips. No two persons have exactly the same arrangement of patterns, and the patterns of any one individual remain unchanged throughout life. While other characteristics may change, fingerprints do not, offering a virtually infallible means of personal identification.
3) Why does MYRA use fingerprint technology on data collection terminals?
Fingerprint technology is valuable whenever additional security, accuracy and personal identification are desired. This type of technology provides fast and accurate verification and identification of employees for purposes of Time and Attendance and Access Control for any size company. In addition, it is fast and easy for employees to use without supervision. This method can even be used to enhance the security of existing Time and Attendance systems.
4) How does biometrics save money?
Biometric technology such as fingerprint verification improves employee attendance and payroll accuracy.
Biometric technology saves money by eliminating proxy-punching, because the employee's presence is absolutely essential in order for them to clock-in at work. Fingerprint technology also eliminates the need for time cards which can be manipulated, lost, stolen or damaged, and are costly to replace.
In addition to the financial benefits, biometrics also provides several other benefits to businesses. Companies that use biometric technology have more secure environments: fingerprint verification allows employers to easily restrict access to each area of a facility by setting clearance levels for each employee, protecting assets from theft or abuse.
Biometrics also eliminate the need for building keys or access cards, which can be lost, stolen, forgotten or misplaced. And, when used for both Access Control and Time and Attendance, employees will never forget to clock in or out, as applying their fingerprint to the reader for granting passage through the entrance and exit means automatic, accurate tracking of time spent 'on the job'.